Cooperatives

The cooperativismo in its roots: ' ' The formation of the Agricultural Colony Tereza Cristina in the Paran of century XIX.' ' Appeared Arlindo Orienting Madoenho: Prof. Francisco Blacksmith Jnior Summary: This work has as objective to present the cooperativismo in its origins, analyzing what the root of this type of organization can be considered, in middle of century XIX, the old one and in the new world. When Robert Owen plants the first seed, being born the Society of the Honest Pioneers of Rochdale in England, inside of a scene with great social complications, the sacrificed workers being in the plants that appeared in all the parts, in the period after revolution in that continent. But three years later, the Frenchman Jean Maurice Faivre, he establishes in Brazilian territory, in the central region of the state of the Paran what she is recognized as the first experience of cooperative of Brazil. Dropbox may find it difficult to be quoted properly. Word-key: History, cooperativismo, workers, plants ABSTRACT: This work has objective you present the cooperativismo in its origins, analyzing what the root of this type of organization can be considered, in middle of century XIX, the old one and in the new world. When Robert Owen plants the first seed, being born the Society of the Honest Pioneers of Rochdale in England, inside of scene with great social complications, the sacrificed workers being in manufactures them that the parts appeared in all, in the period to after revolution in that continent. But three years to later the Frenchman Jean Maurice Faivre, it establishes in Brazilian territory, the central region of the state of the Paran what she is recognized the first experience of cooperative of Brazil. keywords: History, cooperativismo, workers, factories This work has as objective to bring gift a quarrel, on the cooperativismo in its origin, approaching the experience of Rochdale, in England, with the work of Robert Owen, recognized as beginning of the cooperativismo. .

Yates French

The successive perfectionings, the acceptance of some air-tight parameters and the negation of great part of these (not acceptance of the talismans, for example), had been essential stop estruturao of modern science. The capacity to work with the hands, agreed with the curiosity, had made of the man an active inventor, who does not limit itself already to take the world he found as it, but more looks each time to mold it its imagined necessities, Reals or. From there its constant experimentation of possible materials for food, clothes, habitation, the insistent hollowings in the land to extract metals whose existence hardly could suspect to the departure; the allure for the fire and the water, and its respective effect in the panificao, the drying and the fermentation, the constant to go deep of the causal knowledge in the technological adaptation of the ways to the ends, such the case of the invention of a series of old instruments and simple machines. (grifo ours) One of the biggest contributions of the air-tight operations to the practical accomplishments of modern applied science was the use and the reverence to ' ' nmero' ' , considering the root of all the truth. According to Yates French, the renascentista magic pontuava the number as a possible key of operations, being that subsequente history of the accomplishments of the man, in applied science, demonstrated that the number is really one ' ' key-mestra' '. As the project of the magic and the cabala formulated for Henrich Agripa, had a special place for genuine mathematical sciences and its applications with objective to produce ' ' operaes' ' in the world. For Agripa, that one that was turned in mathematics could execute wonderful accomplishments by means of ways purely mechanics. Thus, one mago that it knows ' ' the natural philosophy and the mathematical, also understanding of mechanics, can make extraordinary things and mago must know sciences that produce such wonders, as necessary part of its treinamento' '.

New State: New Histories

In its work ' ' New state: New Histrias' ' Maria Helena Capelato in them takes the questionings as: Why the historians had come back the studies related to the New State from 1980, with regard to years 30, the inquiry on the varguismo as objective to clarify aspects of this history and the study on Populism before the decade of 1970 visa as a whole. Capelato aims at to show with clarity that the New State if constitutes of a regimen authoritarian politician, in opposition with the liberalism-democratic one, that it invigorated in Brazil under the 1891 constitutions the 1934. In accordance with the proper regimen and its intellectuals of the period are visible that democracy and authoritarianism are not ideal antagonistic. The New State if defines as autoritarista democracy, that is, established on the beginning of the authority and not more than the freedom, as in regimes previous. Throughout the text we will notice an analysis that aims at a study directed toward the politician-ideological term, a relation between authoritarianism and democracy, whose synthesis it would be the proper New State. The clipping politician carried through for Capelato, has for objective the understanding of the particularitities of the decade of 30 with a bigger depth in the especificidades of events that had not happened by chance, therefore they comes of a secular structure that in way to the conjunctures had finished coming out. In the prism of the analysis we notice that the studies of the New State, allow to rethink the nature of the regimen, that reflected on aspects of the politics and culture of the period. Examples of these aspects are gifts in the related propaganda politics with the media, the varguista politics and the proper constatao that the idea of that the totalirista concept is inadequate to characterize the New State. Therefore, the study of the New State alone it has to enrich the Brazilian historiografia, an understanding of the politics of masses in a new boarding that argued on the meaning of the permanncias of the past and the possible changes in the field of the culture politics.

Latin America

In the Constitution approved in 1824, he was clearly, that only those that with financial resources, would possess prerogatives of Brazilian citizen. The intended equality, was enters the good possessors and, the not possessing ones are excluam. If the 1850 enter 1822, did not have specific legislation that it was centered in who would be the land possessors, already had indications to who, in fact, they would be distributed. When excluding aboriginals, slaves, great part of the population white without resources of the rights of participation of the public life, established itself, with anticipation, the form of social organization that would have to invigorate. Sposito (2006), detaches that the liberalism of century XIX, exactly breaking the beddings of the estamental society, not making it on the regimen of unrestricted equality to all the members of the society, but under the logic of legal equality. The existing land legislation until then in accord with others that had formed the Brazilian legal composition, was reflected and reflected the domination relations until then existing: the subordination of the inferior classrooms under the ditames of the general interests, centered in the logic of subjection to the international capital. The maintenance of the escravagista system, in the contrahand of the changes occured in the Europe, the United States and, in the too much countries of Latin America, stimulated for the liberal capitalism, pointed how much to the form of conduction of the internal politics. This situation would tend to be extended had to the fact of that Brazil, to the few, transferred its main economic relation with England to the United States, that is, ' ' the measure that the coffee inside increases its importance of economy b