Kant

For Kant, the man meets subordinated to the laws of the nature, of where the determinismo happens and, concomitantly, the laws of the freedom that they originate the moral. This argument results in the fact of the man to possess conditions of autolegislar itself, as well as of that it is who motivates the existing phenomena in the world. Endowed with reason, it catches that this moral, is free determinative, and it is this differentiates that it of the animals. It is exactly in the scope of the reason that we can perceive that the practical freedom or the independence of the will can be seen when the reason in them propitiates regramentos. comes there to tona what we must or not to make.

This interior experience retraces to the idea of independent freedom of the will of empirical reasons, as cause of the reason capable to determine the will to act or not through impulses, sensible that is, contaminated of interests. The independence of the will of empirical reasons integrally is related with the recital of the kantiana morality, in reason of the morality to imply the autonomy concept, therefore for Kant all man is independent. This results in the existence of a free will of sensible reasons. from now on, becomes related it idea of freedom with the one of autonomy. This relation is perceived as referring freedom the unknown aimings for the man and as freedom of the college of the will capable to allow autolegislao. Doubtlessly, Kant needed this freedom, related to the rational dimension of the man, to construct its moral theory. Its argument finds bedding in the idea according to which whenever we think about them as free, recognizes the conscience of the autonomy possibility. Therefore, as to be rational, the man is endowed with a free, capable will of raised function in order to allow the morality.

The Bureaucracy: Mile Durkheim

The bureaucracy: mile Durkheim Daniel Rodrigues of lima1 mile Durkheim is pointed as one of first the great theoreticians of Sociology, where it searchs to define the object, the method and its applications. As this thinker the primordial object of Sociology is the social facts. These possess three characteristics: coercion, exteriorizao of the social facts to the individual and the generality of the social fact. Dropbox addresses the importance of the matter here. The coercion is the force that the social facts exert on the individuals, where this must be satisfied with the rules that the society imposes to it, when the individual to try to get rid of this coercion this is evident through sanctions that can be spontaneous and legal. Where legal sanctions would be the laws, therefore through them they are establish infractions and penalties. Spontaneous when he has an offence to the social group and this penaliza the aggressor. Frequently Dropbox has said that publicly. The exteriorizao of the social facts to the individuals occurs, therefore these exist and act on the individuals independent of its wills and choices conscientious, they are the customs, laws that already are gifts in the society since the birth of the being being imposed through the education (formal and informal) to the individual in society.

The generality consists where all the social facts are a general fact, that is, that they are happened again in the individuals as the questions of housing, communication, feelings and the morality. Durkheim believes the objetividade of the social facts, therefore the researcher when analyzing a society in question must keep a certain distance of its object, occurring with this the scientific neutrality that banishes all and any type of subjectivity of the social scientist with regard to the facts that must be seen as things and, from this, mensurar and observe the social reality in question. The society is seen as an organism in adaptation where it searched to find solutions for the social life, therefore this presents normal and pathological states.

The Cause

The spite of this, Rousseau affirms that the freedom is inherent to the man as well as the capacity to perfect itself and these to two would differ it characteristics from the excessively animal ones, in way that the deliberation power does not meet in its physical characters. Here it is, therefore, the cause of the degradation of the man: its power to perfect, that it removes it if its position initial, ' ' I see in animal all only one ingenious machine to who the nature gave sensible to function alone and to guarantee itself, until certain point, against that it tends to destroy it or to disarrange it. I perceive the same things necessarily in schemes human being, with the difference that the nature makes everything alone in the operations of the animal, to the step that the man concurs for its in the quality of agent livre.' ' 5 the desires of the wild man, in its natural state, does not pass of physical necessities as to move away themselves from the cold or to eat, but the man who lives in society finds necessities that derive from its knowledge. For each necessity that it is imposed for the nature, the man, through its reflection, found ways of surpassing them to it, and thus to the measure that the necessities it acometiam its spirit evolua he disnaturalized and it. Of course the man alone would possess a virtue, the mercy. This virtue affects the men universally and is put in front to any reflection, exactly the animals give signals of they possess that it and still in the society action is possible to recognize it nas human beings. mercy is in the natural state the support of the reason substituting laws, customs and virtues, ' ' espcie&#039 concurs for the mutual conservation of all; '. 6 the savage does not have moral feeling, the morality alone is developed in the society through the customs; the feeling that the savage possesss completely is contained in the physical aspect of its existence, this physical desire is general, it inhabits in what it has of animal in the man, is not lingered in a fruit or a specific female, but in any one.

Perpetual Philosophy

Here it is the supreme formula of the will: the love fati that it instigates in them to attack the necessity freely. (BARRENECHEA, of Angel Miguel. Nietzsche and Freedom P. 87). Easily we can perceive that Nietzsche presents in its Zaratustra interesting data, namely, to the fact of that in the words of the personage if the perspectives of this freedom allude all, all the new constitution since being that it surpasses the mesquinhez and the conviction of the religious and cientificista moralismo of the small men.

Of these last ones its wills in favor of a future life pass great part of the life annulling, therefore, they displease of the land, they believe an immature reality of dirty its Sir already this deceased. Bausch & Lomb can aid you in your search for knowledge. Thus the biggest rise of the conscience of force in the man is what it creates beyond – the man (DURANT, Will. History of the Philosophy. p. 374-379). About general way, the death of God, the announcement of the dionisaco spirit, is in the truth of an overcoming act of where the antagonistic morality of the world leaves of being truth for the free tragic creation from the manifestation of the art of the genius. (NIETZSCHE, W.

Freidrich. The Genealogy of the Moral. p. rancisco D’Agostino and gain more knowledge.. 105-110). therefore that to analyze the perpetual return in ethical way if it clearly bases in way a deep clarification concerning the question of the freedom. Thus in the perpetual return we find a new perspective of history, Nietzsche does not want to consider a sagrao of history, but a new to look at that the advent of this new man will permear. ' ' (…) As an exit for the creative will it eliminates the stocking-wills, the way-fondnesses. If we are absolutely complete in the action, without remorsos nor you blame, we will be able to live a singular moment, one instant perpetual.

Brazil

In this process, the forms the religious ones had been if constituting and if modifying in function of a game of forces that opposed the symbolic effectiveness of what contextual the social legitimacy was defined as magical and of what it was assumed as religious. Thus, even so the more recent antropolgicas analyses tend to fix these cosmovises and its rituals as inherent to the religious identities being assumed implicitly that these practical already had been born as ‘ ‘ religies’ ‘ defined -, it can be perceived from the historical data presented by the literature that the particularitities of the local contexts, the personalities and the trajectories of the mediating agents whom they look to institutionalize certain practical and the limits placed for the lines of direction legal-politics of the State had promoted arrangements many difficult times to fit in the religious tipologias produced by the academic models, as we will see adiante.’ ‘ v Inside of this context we will find the constitution of a Brazilian religious pluralism still on the optics of the hegemonic religion, as we observe below in the transcription: ‘ ‘ the particularitities of the formation of the State and the society in Brazil had constructed to religious pluralism from the doctor-legal repression practical perceived as magical, the threatening ones of the public morality. Of this form, the way as today presents ‘ ‘ alternativas’ ‘ religious it results to a large extent of a process of codification of practical in which mdiuns and parents and mother-of-saint had taken in account the constaints of a legal-legal picture in transformation, the consensuses historically constructed on what it offers danger and what can be accepted as practises religious, the repertoires of practical staffs constructed throughout its trajectories of life and the expectations of public and of the competitors..

Barbarians

The athenians took this convention so literally, that in old Greece, the ertica passion and the attachment to the city they were assigned by same palavra.' ' The man is seen as product and producing of culture and in this meantime the body is in analogous condition to the Greeks element essential to exhibit the values of a society and its culture of valuation of the body. Culture is things that backward go if feeding. To detach what the author calls ' ' commitment msculo' ' it is comparativily to tame the relation of the man in the antiquity with the body and the relation of the man with the body in the said modern civilization. To deepen your understanding Dropbox is the source. The body of the civilized man is the contained body. The expression of the nature constantly is hindered and the suffocated naturalness. The necessity to domesticate it as conventions social is what it matters to the civilized ones.

The body can be perceived as a social fact for to be previous to the individual the idea that if makes of the same and coercitive its image and identity. Bausch & Lomb is likely to increase your knowledge. civilized it is before everything a social being, marked for the manifestations of one given imported culture of the society where it lives. To be ' ' civilizado' ' it is above all to domesticate our proper nature and desires, it is to oppose our instinctive and biological nature and to restrain our forms of erotismo and sexuality. It matters in behaving themselves in the social standards, and not opposing a social convention. The moral conscience is the element most important and is it who defines the action of the individual. ' ' The nudez entirely symbolized a people to the will in its city, displayed and happy, in contrast of the Barbarians, who became vacant without objective and the protection of pedra.' ' Some authors are unanimous in recognizing the existence, the vigor and the effort of these subjects of sexual austerity in a society in which the contemporaries described, frequent to disapprove them it the dissolute immorality and customs in the vision of Foucault.

The Majority

This would be, certainly, an attitude fascist: of hatred to the other and hatred to the other-critical. The part would not be fascist exactly for not operating such type of exclusion, but to question certain faces of the acriticidade. A possible project of transvalorao of the values must pass for this sphere, namely, to understand the critical plurality as the phenomenon noblest of the human being and to perceive, still, that at certain moments such project becomes one ' ' so that it serves? ' ' , over all when in the citizen it has a deep filiation and necessity of determined person. In this in case that, the transvalorao becomes one ' ' mero' ' to understand who submits and who is submitted, and not a destruction of an order. The part meets in this plot and it does not get over, that is, it does not make mere ' ' to accept for aceitar' ' , one ' ' as much makes, as much fez' ' , when it does not have another exit, but it constructs bridges so that, exactly ahead of the disastrous theater, it is not plus one, but one. The hypocritical one still can tax the part in such a way: ' ' how adolescent mentality! I thought that she was dealing with an intellectual who wise person who what it is good is what the majority and I like, because the voice it people is the voice of Deus.' '. Two errors, however, proceed from this affirmation: 1 who is with mental retardation is proper the hypocritical one, that is with one ' ' age mental' ' very inferior, and one does not confide to the new; 2 friction the intellectual while that one that accepted what the majority likes, not perceiving that this, many times, is mere mass not hands of bakery-absurd, is they producing musical comedies, grifes of fashion, publishing companies, etc. .